**Advanced Binary for Programming & Computer Science: Logical, Bitwise and Arithmetic Operations, and Data Encoding and Representation by Sunil Tanna**

English | 2019 | ISBN: 1726352642 | 190 Pages | EPUB, AZW3 | 21 MB

This book explains how the binary works & how it is used by computers to represent information including positive & negative integers, characters & real numbers. It explains the logical & bitwise operations used to manipulate information & perform arithmetic. We also briefly look at how computers store this information in memory & secondary storage, & how it can be transmitted between computers.

Topics covered include:

INTRODUCING NUMBER BASES & BINARY

CONVERTING FROM BINARY TO DENARY & VICE-VERSA

How to Convert a Binary Number to Denary

How to Convert a Denary Number to Binary

HOW COMPUTERS GROUP BINARY DIGITS

A Closer Look at Bytes

A Closer Look at Words

-Word alignment, word alignment & packing, byte ordering & endianness

Addresses

BOOLEAN OPERATIONS & LOGIC GATES

Fundamentals of Boolean Algebra

-NOT, AND, OR, XOR, NAND, NOR, NXOR

Combining Logic Gates

-NOT, AND, OR, XOR, NOR using NAND logic

Logical Versus Bitwise Operations

Using Bitwise Operations to Set, Clear, Flip or Test Bits

-Setting bits, inverting bits, clearing bits, testing bits

ADDING & SUBTRACTING IN BINARY

Adding Binary Integers

-The column addition method of adding denary numbers & adding binary numbers, implementing binary addition using logic gates

Subtracting Binary Integers

-The column subtraction methods of subtracting denary numbers & subtracting binary numbers, implementing binary subtraction using logic gates

SHIFT OPERATIONS

Left Shift

Right Shift

Circular Shifts

MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION IN BINARY

Multiplication

-Multiplying by a power of 2, column multiplication, Russian peasant multiplication algorithm, multiplication in hardware

Division

-Dividing by a power of 2, denary long division, binary long division, algorithm for binary long division, division in hardware

REPRESENTING CHARACTERS & STRINGS OF CHARACTERS

Representing Individual Characters

-ASCII, extended ASCIIs, BCDIC & other early character encodings, EBCDIC, Unicode

Representing Strings of Characters

-Terminated strings, length-prefixed strings, other string representations

REPRESENTING TEXT & GRAPHICS ON SCREEN

Text Mode Displays

Bitmap Displays

PARITY CHECKING

What is a Parity Bit

Even & Odd Parity

Advantages, Disadvantages & Limitations of Using Parity Checking

Parity’s Use in RAID Storage Devices

Unused Parity Bits

SIGNED INTEGERS

Offset Binary

Signed Magnitude Representation

One’s Complement

Two’s Complement

Other Representations of Signed Numbers

-Base -2, signed-digit representation

REAL NUMBERS

Fixed Point Representation

Floating Point Representation

Rational Data Type

Logarithmic Number Systems

DENARY ENCODINGS & DECIMAL DATA TYPES

Why Use Denary Representations of Real Numbers?

Binary Encodings of Denary

-Serial decimal, two-out-of-five, bi-quinary, character-based encodings of denary, binary-Coded Decimal (BCD), Chen-Ho Encoding, Densely Packed Decimal (DPD) & excess-3

Decimal Data Types

-Which numbers can be exactly represented in fixed & floating point?

-How inexact?

-Issues with inexact representation

-Decimal representation

DATA STRUCTURES

Structs

Arrays

Linked Lists & More Complex Structures

-Limitations of arrays, introducing linked lists, singly & doubly linked lists, more complex data structures

TYPES OF COMPUTER MEMORY

Magnetic-Core Memory & Core Rope Memory

RAM

-DRAM & SRAM

ROM

-Mask-programmed ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Flash memory

SECONDARY STORAGE

Sequential Storage

-Punched tape, magnetic tape

Random Access Storage

-Magnetic disk, optical disk, solid state drives, flash memory & cloud storage

MEASURING MEMORY & STORAGE

DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS

Serial Communication

Parallel Communication

MEASURING TRANSFER RATES

Baud

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